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Structure Composition of Freeze Dryer

Freeze dryer equipment is also called vacuum freeze dryer, usually composed of drying chamber, refrigeration system, vacuum system, heating system and control system.

I. Drying chamber
The drying chamber is one of the important part of the freeze dryer. The performance of the drying chamber directly affects the performance of the freeze dryer, which can heat  and cool. It has two main shapes: cylindrical and square. The cylindrical shape is easy to operate but the production cost is relatively high, while the square shape is the opposite.

II. Refrigeration system
The refrigeration system is a key part of the freeze dryer. The refrigeration system mainly includes: refrigeration compressor, condenser, evaporator and thermal expansion valve. Ammonia compressors are the most commonly used refrigeration compressors.  Evaporators mostly use plate heat exchangers with high heat exchange efficiency.  Condensers often use shell and tube heat exchangers with small volume and high efficiency. Externally balanced thermal expansion valves is the thermal expansion valve that is widely used. The refrigeration system is mainly to provide sufficient cold capacity for the pre-freezing of materials and cold traps in the freeze-drying room.

III. Vacuum system
The vacuum system consists of a vacuum pump, a vacuum pressure gauge, a vacuum pressure switch and a vacuum degree regulating valve. The entire system must be completely sealed. Generally, mechanical vacuum pumps are used. The most common vacuum pumps include rotary vane and sliding vane oil-sealed mechanical vacuum pumps.

IV. Heating system
The heating system consists of heating plates, heat exchangers, circulating pumps, pipelines, valves, temperature sensors, etc. Electric heating and steam heating are the two main heating methods. The heating system can sublime the ice crystals in the product into water vapor and provide enough heat to dissolve the frost in the condenser.

V. Control system
The control system mainly includes: various switches, safety devices, automatic monitoring sensors and different instruments, etc., both manual control and automatic control. The control system is the command and control center of the freeze dryer, which can effectively control the correct operation of the freeze-drying process, and record the effective parameters of the freeze-drying process.


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